Makharaij (points of articulation)
The Arabic 29 consonants are pronounced from approximately seventeen different points. It is necessary that one should pronounce each Arabic letter correctly from its point of articulation. Several Arabic letters originate from the throat (Guttural letters) unfamiliar to an English speaking. For example, letter ﺡ خ ع and غ have no equivalent sound in the English alphabet. Furthermore, the vastness of the Arabic language, any small mistake in pronunciation of a letter or word may change the meaning of that word. For example, the word ‘Qalb’ (with q) means heart, if read ‘Kalb’ (with k), it will mean a dog.

ي   و   ا  

1. ا (Alif) و (Waw) and (Ya) ي, originate from the emptiness of the mouth (interior cavity). Huroof Hawaiyah –These letters also know as long vowel letters (Huroofe-Maddah)

ھ  ہ   ء

2. ء (Hamza) and ه (Haa) originate from the throat (nearest to the chest - Aqsa-e-Halq (Hurofe-Halqi - Guttural letters)

ح   ع

3. ع (Ain) and ح (Haa ) originate from the throat (middle or centre region - Wasatoul Halq) (Hurofe-Halqi - Guttural letters)