occasionally the long vowels are written in a is an shorthand version, as symbols on top or below the letter. These are pronounced exactly the same way as their corresponding long vowels, even though they look different,
1. Upright (standing) Alif or Fatha or Khara Zabar
A small vertical stroke placed above a consonant (upright or standing Alif) is an alternative method to writing a letter having Fat’hah - and letter Alif ا thus and will render the same sound- Length: two measures of haarakah.
2. Upright (standing) Kasrah vowel sign or Khari Zer
A small vertical stroke placed under a consonant is an shorthand version of write a Kasrah - and ya saakin, thus, and will render the same sound. Length: two measures of haarakah.
3. Inverted (upside) Dammah vowel sign or Ultaa Pesh Maddah Waw (ulta Pesh)
When maddah Waw is placed above a letter is an alternative method to write Dammah and letter waw saakin thus and will render the same sound. - Length: two measures of haarakah.